1838 mormon war vigilantes crossword

[43] The citizens of De Witt sent non-Mormon Henry Root to appeal to Judge King and General Parks for assistance. [102] Mormon residents were harassed and attacked by angry residents who were no longer restrained by militia officers. The conflict continued until early November, when the outnumbered Mormons surrendered and agreed to leave the state. To do so, would be to act with extreme cruelty. John Corrill, one of the Mormon leaders, remembered: Friendship began to be restored between (the Mormons) and their neighbors, the old prejudices were fast dying away, and they were doing well, until the summer of 1838[18], In 1837, problems at the church's headquarters in Kirtland, Ohio, centering on the Kirtland Safety Society bank, led to schism. With peace restored, Smith's group returned to Caldwell County. "[58], The Missourians evicted from their homes were no better prepared than the Mormon refugees had been. Although Mormons won the battle, they took heavier casualties than the Missourians. [1][42], Sentiment among the anti-Mormon segment of Carroll County's population hardened, and some began to take up arms. The church relocated from Kirtland to Far West, which became its new headquarters. Initial reaction by Missourians was mixed. [59] According to one witness, "We could stand in our door and see houses burning every night for over two weeks... the Mormons completely gutted Daviess County. [75], Meanwhile, exaggerated reports from the Battle of Crooked River made their way to Missouri's governor, Lilburn Boggs. The Mormons responded defensively, but hos-tilities gradually escalated until both Mormon and non-Mormon vigi- Sheriff J.H. [61] None of these claims, however, purport to be eye-witness accounts. Although a short war, it affected more than ten thousand Mormons in Missouri. The refinement, the charity of our age, will not brook it.[113]. [68] Generals Atchison, Doniphon and Parks decided they needed to call out the militia to "prevent further violence." Lucas' terms were severe. I will not obey your order. [13] In Daviess County, where Whigs and Democrats had been roughly evenly balanced, Mormon population reached a level where they could determine election results.[22]. Mormon leaders appealed to the state legislature to overturn the requirement that they leave the state, but the legislature tabled the issue until a date well after that when the Mormons would have left the state. Even people who otherwise would have had no sympathy for the Mormons were appalled by Boggs' Executive Order and the treatment of the Mormons by the mobs. [12], At the same time, a leadership struggle between the church presidency and Missouri leaders led to the excommunication of several high-placed Mormon leaders, including Oliver Cowdery (one of the Three Witnesses and the church's original "second elder"), David Whitmer (another of the Three Witnesses and Stake President of the Missouri Church), as well as John Whitmer, Hiram Page, William Wines Phelps and others. [83] Smith and the other leaders rode with Hinkle back to the Missouri militia encampment. "[27][37] Black later confirmed that he had felt threatened by the large number of hostile armed men. On October 11, Mormon leaders agreed to abandon the settlement and move to Caldwell County. Most of these refugees settled in or near what would become the city of Nauvoo, Illinois. On Sunday, October 14, a small company of state militia under the command of Colonel William A. Dunn of Clay County arrived in Far West. [37], At a meeting at Lyman Wight's home between leading Mormons and non-Mormons, both sides agreed not to protect anyone who had broken the law and to surrender all offenders to the authorities. Lathrop wrote "I was compeled[sic] to leave my home my house was thronged with a company of armed men consisting of fourteen in number and they abusing my family in allmost[sic] every form that Creturs[sic] in the shape of human Beeings[sic] could invent. They also reported the existence of the Danite group among the Mormons and repeated a popular rumor that a group of Danites was planning to attack and burn Richmond and Liberty. "[46] After more than a week, a company of armed Mormons assisted Lathrop in rescuing his wife and two of his children (one had died while prisoner). Joseph Smith and the other arrested leaders were held overnight under guard in General Lucas' camp, where they were left exposed to the elements. Atchison said further, "I would respectfully suggest to your Excellency the propriety of a visit to the scene of excitement in person, or at all events, a strong proclamation" as the only way to restore peace and the rule of law. The extermination order is the name commonly used to refer to an executive order signed on October 27, 1838, by Lilburn W. Boggs, the governor of Missouri during the Mormon-Missouri War of 1838. We’ve got a lot to get through, so let’s jump right in. The conflict continued until early November, when the outnumbered Mormons surrendered and agreed to leave the state. Citizens in Saline, Howard, Jackson, Chariton, Ray, and other nearby counties organized vigilance committees sympathetic to the Carroll County expulsion party. Public opinion has recoiled from a summary and forcible removal of our negro population;—much more likely will it be to revolt at the violent expulsion of two or three thousand souls, who have so many ties to connect them with us in a common brotherhood. Nearly every one was burned. Black refused, but after meeting with Smith, he wrote and signed a document stating that he "is not attached to any mob, nor will attach himself to any such people, and so long as they [the Mormons] will not molest me, I will not molest them. [53][55] Millport, Grindstone Fork and the smaller Missourian settlement of Splawn's Ridge were also plundered and had some houses burned. [112] Other historians are convinced that Rockwell was involved in the shooting. William Bowman, one of the guards, was dragged by his hair across the town square. A Militia under the command of Samuel Bogart was authorized by General Atchison to patrol the no-man's land between Ray and Caldwell Counties known as "Bunkham's Strip" – an unincorporated territory 6 miles (9.7 km) east to west and 1-mile (1.6 km) north to south. [57] The plundered goods were deposited in the Bishop's storehouse at Diahman. [31], In the speech, Rigdon declared that the Latter-day Saints would no longer be driven from their homes by persecution from without or dissension from within, and that if enemies came again to drive out the Saints, "And that mob that comes on us to disturb us, it shall be between us and them a war of extermination; for we will follow them until the last drop of their blood is spilled; or else they will have to exterminate us, for we will carry the seat of war to their own houses and their own families, and one party or the other shall be utterly destroyed". If ye are faithful, ye shall assemble yourselves together to rejoice upon the land of Missouri, which is the land of your inheritance, which is now the land of your enemies.[5]. And Subsequent Expulsion. King, judge of the Fifth judicial circuit of the state of Missouri, at the Court-house in Richmond, in a criminal court of inquiry, begun November 12, 1838, on the trial of Joseph Smith, Jr., and others, for high treason and other crimes against the state. [51][52] Although he was sympathetic to the Mormons' plight, Doniphan reminded the Latter Day Saints that the Caldwell County militia could not legally enter Daviess County, and he advised Mormons traveling there to go in small parties and unarmed. This triggered a brawl between the bystanders. Executive paralysis permitted terrorism, which forced Mormons to self-defense, which was immediately labeled as an "insurrection," and was put down by the activated militia of the county. [99], Smith and the other Mormons resettled in Nauvoo, Illinois, beginning in 1839. [119] Other historians are convinced that Rockwell was involved in the shooting. Nathan Tanner reported that his militia company rescued another woman and three small children who were hiding in the bushes as their home burned. [56], Local citizens were outraged by the actions of the Danites and other Mormon bands. Stephen C. LeSueur, The 1838 Mormon War in Missouri, University of Missouri Press, 1990. A committee sent to De Witt ordered the Latter-day Saints to leave. Robinson, Ebenezer. [80] "In the summer and fall of 1838, animosity between Mormons and their neighbors in western Missouri erupted into an armed conflict known as the Mormon War. "[35] The crowd dispersed, and the Mormons returned to their homes. Thomas B. Marsh, President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of the church, and fellow Apostle Orson Hyde were alarmed by the activities which had taken place in Daviess County. But if there is a particular year that ought to be understood for a better comprehension of Mormonism, the year would have to be 1838. Although he had refrained from stopping the illegal anti-Mormon siege of De Witt, he now mustered 2,500 state militia to put down what he perceived to be a Mormon insurrection against the state. Finding 10-year-old Sardius Smith hiding behind the bellows, William Reynolds of Livingston County shot and killed the boy, saying: "Nits will make lice, and if he had lived he would have become a Mormon"[79], In all, 17 Latter Day Saints were killed in what came to be called the Haun's Mill Massacre. Hey guys, in this episode we’re going to talk about the Missouri Mormon War of 1838. [64] Based on the available evidence, LeSueur estimates that Mormons were responsible for the burning of fifty homes or shops and the displacement of one hundred non-Mormon families. A militia under the command of Samuel Bogart was authorized by General Atchison to patrol the no-man's land between Ray and Caldwell Counties known as "Bunkham's Strip" – an unincorporated territory 6 miles (9.7 km) east to west and 1-mile (1.6 km) north to south. Possibly playing on Rigdon's July 4 sermon that talked of a "war of extermination," Boggs issued Missouri Executive Order 44, also known as the "Extermination Order," which stated that "the Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven from the State if necessary for the public peace..."[71] The Extermination Order was finally rescinded on June 25, 1976 by Governor Christopher Samuel "Kit" Bond.[72][73]. In the summer and fall of 1838, animosity between Mormons and their neighbors in western Missouri erupted into an armed conflict known as the Mormon War. On October 11, Mormon leaders agreed to abandon the settlement and move to Caldwell County. Tensions rose in Clay County as the Mormon population grew. However, Reynolds was unable to capture Rockwell. It should also be noted that none of the participants in the raid ever cited the order as justification for their actions. He stated that General Parks reported to him that "a portion of the men from Carroll County, with one piece of artillery, are on their march for Daviess County, where it is thought the same lawless game is to be played over, and the Mormons to be driven from that county and probably from Caldwell County." (jwha.info 2010) Boggs survived, but Mormons came under immediate suspicion. [74], While the State Militia gathered, Missouri unorganized Militia continued to act on their own, driving Mormons inward to Far West and Adam-ondi-Ahman. [32][33], William Peniston, a candidate for the state legislature, made disparaging statements about the Mormons, calling them "horse-thieves and robbers",[34] and warned them not to vote in the election. When the Missourian raiders approached the settlement on the afternoon of October 30, some 30 to 40 Latter Day Saint families were living or encamped there. [35] Reminding Daviess County residents of the growing electoral power of the Mormon community, Peniston made a speech in Gallatin claiming that if the Missourians "suffer such men as these [Mormons] to vote, you will soon lose your suffrage." [79] One 19th century Missouri historian noted: The Daviess County men were very bitter against the Mormons, and vowed the direst vengeance on the entire sect. News of the battle quickly spread and contributed to an all-out panic in northwestern Missouri. Nearly every one was burned. John Whitmer recounts that Smith bribed the guards. [4] All of the conflicts in the Mormon War occurred in a corridor 100 miles (160 km) to the east and northeast of Kansas City. A number of Missourians left the scene to obtain guns and ammunition and swore that they would "kill all the Saints they could find, or drive them out of Daviess County, sparing neither men, women or children. With one child in each arm, she waded across an icy creek to safety in Adam-ondi-Ahman. ", Siege of Far West and capture of church leaders. Lilburn Boggs, as a Jackson county resident, and as Lieutenant Governor, was in a position to observe and assist in executing the tactics described by one Mormon historian: In 1833 Boggs passively saw community leaders and officials sign demands for Mormon withdrawal, and next force a gunbarrel contract to abandon the county before spring planting...anti-Mormon goals were reached in a few simple stages. According to an article in the Elders' Journal – a Latter Day Saint newspaper published in Far West – "The Saints here are at perfect peace with all the surrounding inhabitants, and persecution is not so much as once named among them..."[18]. Hinkle and Murdock refused, citing their right as American citizens to settle where they pleased. [37], Black and others filed complaints against Smith and the other identifiable Mormon participants. Danite 1838 Mormon War Joseph Smith Saint Peter, Guernsey Mormons. The Missourians and their families, outnumbered by the Mormons, made their way to neighboring counties. The Livingston men became thoroughly imbued with the same spirit, and were eager for the raid ... feel[ing] an extraordinary sympathy for the outrages suffered by their neighbors"[75], Although it had just been issued, it is unlikely that the governor's "Extermination Order" would have already reached these men, and in any event the order would not have authorized them to cross into Caldwell County to raid. Most Mormon immigrants to Missouri (which was at the time a, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 08:25. [35] Reminding Daviess County residents of the growing electoral power of the Mormon community, Peniston made a speech in Gallatin claiming that if the Missourians "suffer such men as these [Mormons] to vote, you will soon lose your suffrage." Several Mormon homes near Millport were burned and their inhabitants expelled into the snow. [3][84] When survivors of the massacre reached Far West, the reports of the savagery of the attack played a significant part in the decision of the Mormons to surrender. [113], Whatever the case, the following year Rockwell was arrested, tried, and acquitted of the attempted murder,[111] although most of Boggs' contemporaries remained convinced of his guilt. [16] Mormons had already begun buying land in the proposed Caldwell County, including areas that were carved off to become parts of Ray and Daviess Counties. Affidavits concerning the burning and looting in Daviess County. [ 13 ] demanded that he sign document. 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